8 · Page Functionality with Keyboard and Touch Screen

Web 2.0 Services

It is important that all functions can be accessed through keyboard tabbing and using enter or space to activate elements. If the site makes use of access keys (keyboard shortcuts), it should be possible to discover these through site documentation. Screen readers depend on navigational elements on touch screens being voiced. The gestures tend to change when a screen reader is used with double tap to activate elements and a different number of fingers being used to flip pages.

Outcomes and Scores

This test has 4 possible outcomes.

Outcome Score
Fully navigable with total keyboard functionality which does not preclude other input devices - touch screen. Additional information disappears/appears on hover. Allows turning off & changing character key shortcuts. Alternatives for complex gestures. 100%
Non-critical features on the page require mouse use and do not respond to screen reader use when reached. May work with one browser but not another. Allow disabling of motion actuation and provide conventional input/function alternatives. 67%
Full navigation but inaccessible controls for accessing embedded content - media players etc. No control for disabling motion actuation. 33%
Critical features on page require mouse use or fail to respond to screen reader use on a touch screen. Content shown on hover is not hoverable. No control for users to switch off character shortcuts. No single pointer alternative for path-based gesture. 0%


The results of this test are taken into account when calculating accessibility scores for the following disabilities.


The following techniques may come in handy when running this test.


This test aims to cover the following sections of best practice.

Document Section Heading
WCAG 2.1 1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.1.1 Keyboard More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception) More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.4.3 Focus Order More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.4.7 Focus Visible More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.5.1 Pointer Gestures More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.5.4 Motion Actuation More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.5.5 Target Size More Info
WCAG 2.1 2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms More Info